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Estonia Country Guide

Explore Estonia in Europe

Estonia with the capital city Tallinn is located in Europe (Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland). It covers some 45,227 square kilometres (slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined) with 1,307,000 citizens.

Map of the area of  in

The topography includes marshy, lowlands with flat in the north, hilly in the south. The average density of population is approximately 29 per km². The notable climate conditions in Estonia can be described as maritime with wet, moderate winters, cool summers. Possible natural disasters include sometimes flooding occurs in the spring.

To reach someone in Estonia dial +372 prior to a number. There are 492,800 installed telephones. And there are 2,720,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks commonly support frequencies of 900, 1800 MHz and 3G. Websites registered in this country end with the top level domain ".ee". If you want to bring electric equipment on your trip (e.g. laptop power supply), note the local power outlet of 230V - 50Hz.

About the flag and history of Estonia

Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white; various interpretations are linked to the flag colors; blue represents faith, loyalty, and devotion, while also reminiscent of the sky, sea, and lakes of the country; black symbolizes the soil of the country and the dark past and suffering endured by the Estonian people; white refers to the striving towards enlightenment and virtue, and is the color of birch bark and snow, as well as summer nights illuminated by the midnight sun.

After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US - it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with the West. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004, formally joined the OECD in late 2010, and adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2011.


Geography Quick-Facts

Summary Continent: Europe
Neighbours: Russia, Latvia
Capital: Tallinn
Size 45,226 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 17,462 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Population 1,307,000
Currency Name: Kroon, Currency Code: EEK
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .ee
Telephone Country Prefix +372
Mobile Phone Connections 2,720,000
Landline Phone Connections 492,800

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).

Geography

Value name Value World Rank
Area 45,228 (sq km) 133

People and Society

Value name Value World Rank
Population 1,266,375 157
Population growth rate -0.66 (%) 228
Birth rate 10.38 (births/1,000 population) 184
Death rate 13.65 (deaths/1,000 population) 14
Net migration rate -3.35 (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 182
Maternal mortality rate 2.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 183
Infant mortality rate 6.82 (deaths/1,000 live births) 164
Life expectancy at birth 73.82 (years) 118
Total fertility rate 1.45 (children born/woman) 198
Health expenditures 6.00 (% of GDP) 107
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 1.20 (%) 41
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 9,900 97
HIV/AIDS - deaths 500 93
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 20.60 (%) 95
Education expenditures 6.10 (% of GDP) 37
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 22.4 (%) 46

Economy

Value name Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 29,570,000,000 113
GDP - real growth rate 3.20 (%) 103
GDP - per capita (PPP) 22,100 66
Labor force 675,900 153
Unemployment rate 11.50 (%) 123
Distribution of family income - Gini index 31 108
Investment (gross fixed) 23.30 (% of GDP) 63
Taxes and other revenues 36.2 (% of GDP) 60
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) -2.40 (% of GDP) 93
Public debt 8.00 (% of GDP) 144
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.30 (%) 87
Commercial bank prime lending rate 6.10 (%) 139
Stock of narrow money 7,033,000,000 90
Stock of broad money 12,110,000,000 100
Stock of domestic credit 19,770,000,000 85
Market value of publicly traded shares 2,260,000,000 97
Industrial production growth rate 18.00 (%) 2
Current account balance 498,000,000 47
Exports 17,380,000,000 78
Imports 17,870,000,000 81
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 217,000,000 159
Debt - external 21,980,000,000 79
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 16,760,000,000 75
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 6,609,000,000 61

Energy

Value name Value World Rank
Electricity - production 12,890,000,000 (kWh) 89
Electricity - consumption 7,755,000,000 (kWh) 96
Electricity - exports 4,354,000,000 (kWh) 31
Electricity - imports 1,100,000,000 (kWh) 63
Electricity - installed generating capacity 2661000 (kW) 92
Electricity - from fossil fuels 94.6 (% of total installed capacity) 69
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 0.3 (% of total installed capacity) 146
Electricity - from other renewable sources 5.1 (% of total installed capacity) 36
Crude oil - production 7,700 (bbl/day) 84
Refined petroleum products - consumption 26,340 (bbl/day) 122
Refined petroleum products - imports 23,270 (bbl/day) 101
Natural gas - consumption 701,000,000 (cu m) 97
Natural gas - imports 701,000,000 (cu m) 65
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 20,560,000 (Mt) 82

Communications

Value name Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 471,900 101
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,863,000 142
Internet hosts 865,494 49
Internet users 971,700 102

Transportation

Value name Value World Rank
Airports 18 140
Railways 1,200 (km) 85
Roadways 58,034 (km) 75
Waterways 335 (km) 91
Merchant marine 25 89

Military

Value name Value World Rank
Military expenditures 2.00 (% of GDP) 66

Data based on CIA facts book 2010 & 2013, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases

List of current world heritage sites

Name Since
Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn
The origins of Tallinn date back to the 13th century, when a castle was built there by the crusading knights of the Teutonic Order. It developed as a major centre of the Hanseatic League, and its wealth is demonstrated by the opulence of the public b ...
1997