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Finland Country Guide

Explore Finland in Europe

Finland with the capital city Helsinki is located in Europe (Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea). It covers some 337,031 square kilometres (slightly smaller than Montana) with 5,244,000 citizens.

Interactive map of Finland

The terrain features mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills. The average density of population is approximately 16 per km². The notable climate conditions in Finland can be described as cold temperate with potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes. Potential natural disasters are NA.

To reach someone in Finland dial +358 prior to a number. There are 1,430,000 installed telephones. And there are 7,700,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks commonly support frequencies of 900, 1800 MHz and 3G. Websites registered in this country end with the top level domain ".fi". If you want to bring electric equipment on your trip (e.g. laptop power supply), note the local power outlet of 230V - 50Hz.

About the flag and history of Finland

White with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter.

Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are a high standard of education, equality promotion, and national social security system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

Geography Quick-Facts

Summary Continent: Europe
Neighbours: Norway, Russia, Sweden
Capital: Helsinki
Size 337,030 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 130,128 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than Montana
Population 5,244,000
Currency Name: Euro, Currency Code: EUR
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .fi
Telephone Country Prefix +358
Mobile Phone Connections 7,700,000
Landline Phone Connections 1,430,000

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Value name Value World Rank
Area 338,145 (sq km) 65

People and Society

Value name Value World Rank
Population 5,266,114 116
Population growth rate 0.06 (%) 186
Birth rate 10.36 (births/1,000 population) 185
Death rate 10.42 (deaths/1,000 population) 44
Net migration rate 0.62 (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 63
Maternal mortality rate 5.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 177
Infant mortality rate 3.38 (deaths/1,000 live births) 213
Life expectancy at birth 79.55 (years) 41
Total fertility rate 1.73 (children born/woman) 166
Health expenditures 9.00 (% of GDP) 43
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.10 (%) 127
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 2,600 131
HIV/AIDS - deaths 100 131
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 23.00 (%) 77
Education expenditures 6.80 (% of GDP) 24
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 18.9 (%) 64


Value name Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 200,700,000,000 56
GDP - real growth rate -0.20 (%) 186
GDP - per capita (PPP) 37,000 37
Labor force 2,679,000 108
Unemployment rate 7.30 (%) 81
Distribution of family income - Gini index 27 127
Investment (gross fixed) 20.00 (% of GDP) 95
Taxes and other revenues 51.7 (% of GDP) 14
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) -1.80 (% of GDP) 82
Public debt 53.50 (% of GDP) 53
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.00 (%) 79
Central bank discount rate 1.75 (%) 117
Commercial bank prime lending rate 2.68 (%) 180
Stock of narrow money 117,000,000,000 31
Stock of broad money 183,400,000,000 44
Stock of domestic credit 257,800,000,000 38
Market value of publicly traded shares 118,200,000,000 40
Industrial production growth rate 1.50 (%) 124
Current account balance -3,600,000,000 155
Exports 72,700,000,000 49
Imports 72,230,000,000 42
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 9,900,000,000 74
Debt - external 599,300,000,000 23
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 84,320,000,000 44
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 148,800,000,000 25


Value name Value World Rank
Electricity - production 76,160,000,000 (kWh) 40
Electricity - consumption 77,660,000,000 (kWh) 37
Electricity - exports 5,218,000,000 (kWh) 29
Electricity - imports 15,720,000,000 (kWh) 11
Electricity - installed generating capacity 16320000 (kW) 44
Electricity - from fossil fuels 52.5 (% of total installed capacity) 153
Electricity - from nuclear fuels 16.4 (% of total installed capacity) 16
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 19.1 (% of total installed capacity) 93
Electricity - from other renewable sources 12.0 (% of total installed capacity) 20
Crude oil - imports 215,700 (bbl/day) 32
Refined petroleum products - production 301,500 (bbl/day) 46
Refined petroleum products - consumption 204,800 (bbl/day) 57
Refined petroleum products - exports 133,600 (bbl/day) 40
Refined petroleum products - imports 103,100 (bbl/day) 48
Natural gas - consumption 4,101,000,000 (cu m) 66
Natural gas - imports 4,101,000,000 (cu m) 36
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 54,400,000 (Mt) 59


Value name Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 1,080,000 73
Telephones - mobile cellular 8,940,000 82
Internet hosts 4,763,000 22
Internet users 4,393,000 55


Value name Value World Rank
Airports 148 38
Railways 5,919 (km) 31
Roadways 78,141 (km) 59
Waterways 7,842 (km) 18
Merchant marine 97 51


Value name Value World Rank
Military expenditures 2.00 (% of GDP) 68

Data based on CIA facts book 2010 & 2013, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases

List of current world heritage sites

Name Since
Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki
This Bronze Age burial site features more than 30 granite burial cairns, providing a unique insight into the funerary practices and social and religious structures of northern Europe more than three millennia ago. ...
Fortress of Suomenlinna
Built in the second half of the 18th century by Sweden on a group of islands located at the entrance of Helsinki's harbour, this fortress is an especially interesting example of European military architecture of the time. ...
High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago
The Kvarken Archipelago (Finland) and the High Coast (Sweden) are situated in the Gulf of Bothnia, a northern extension of the Baltic Sea. The 5,600 islands of the Kvarken Archipelago feature unusual ridged washboard moraines, ‘De Geer moraines’, ...
Old Rauma
Situated on the Gulf of Botnia, Rauma is one of the oldest harbours in Finland. Built around a Franciscan monastery, where the mid-15th-century Holy Cross Church still stands, it is an outstanding example of an old Nordic city constructed in wood. Al ...
Petäjävesi Old Church
Petäjävesi Old Church, in central Finland, was built of logs between 1763 and 1765. This Lutheran country church is a typical example of an architectural tradition that is unique to eastern Scandinavia. It combines the Renaissance conception of a c ...
Verla Groundwood and Board Mill
The Verla groundwood and board mill and its associated residential area is an outstanding, remarkably well-preserved example of the small-scale rural industrial settlements associated with pulp, paper and board production that flourished in northern ...