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Georgia Country Guide

Explore Georgia in Asia

Georgia with the capital city Tbilisi is located in Asia (Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea). It covers some 69,701 square kilometres (slightly smaller than South Carolina) with 4,630,000 citizens.

Interactive map of Georgia

The landscape offers largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south with Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west, Mtkvari River Basin in the east and good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland. The average density of population is approximately 66 per km². The notable climate conditions in Georgia can be described as warm and pleasant with Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast. Potential threats by nature are earthquakes.

To reach someone in Georgia dial +995 prior to a number. There are 620,000 installed telephones. And there are 2,837,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks commonly support frequencies of 900, 1800 Mhz. Websites registered in this country end with the top level domain ".ge". If you want to bring electric equipment on your trip (e.g. laptop power supply), note the local power outlet of 220V - 50Hz.

About the flag and history of Georgia

White rectangle with a central red cross extending to all four sides of the flag; each of the four quadrants displays a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; although adopted as the official Georgian flag in 2004, the five-cross flag design appears to date back to the 14th century.

The region of present day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Mounting public discontent over rampant corruption and ineffective government services, followed by an attempt by the incumbent Georgian Government to manipulate national legislative elections in November 2003 touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. In the aftermath of that popular movement, which became known as the "Rose Revolution," new elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his United National Movement (UNM) party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Periodic flare-ups in tension and violence culminated in a five-day conflict in August 2008 between Russia and Georgia, including the invasion of large portions of undisputed Georgian territory. Russian troops pledged to pull back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and Russian military forces remain in those regions. Billionaire philanthropist Bidzina IVANISHVILI's unexpected entry into politics in October 2011 brought the divided opposition together under his Georgian Dream coalition, which won a majority of seats in the October 2012 parliamentary election and removed UNM from power. A new constitution shifting many powers from the president to the prime minister and parliament, including the power to name the prime minister and government ministers, does not go into effect until after a new president is elected in the fall of 2013. Conceding defeat, SAAKASHVILI named IVANISHVILI as prime minister and allowed Georgian Dream to create a new government. Tensions remain high as IVANISHVILI, SAAKASHVILI, and their supporters struggle to co-exist until the end of the president's term.

Geography Quick-Facts

Summary Continent: Asia
Neighbours: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Russia
Capital: Tbilisi
Size 69,700 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 26,911 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Population 4,630,000
Currency Name: Lari, Currency Code: GEL
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .ge
Telephone Country Prefix +995
Mobile Phone Connections 2,837,000
Landline Phone Connections 620,000

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Value name Value World Rank
Area 69,700 (sq km) 121

People and Society

Value name Value World Rank
Population 4,555,911 122
Population growth rate -0.33 (%) 218
Birth rate 10.72 (births/1,000 population) 180
Death rate 10.17 (deaths/1,000 population) 49
Net migration rate -3.86 (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 187
Maternal mortality rate 67.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 90
Infant mortality rate 14.21 (deaths/1,000 live births) 116
Life expectancy at birth 77.51 (years) 65
Total fertility rate 1.46 (children born/woman) 194
Health expenditures 10.10 (% of GDP) 29
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.10 (%) 129
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 3,500 126
HIV/AIDS - deaths 100 133
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 22.10 (%) 82
Children under the age of 5 years underweight 1.10 (%) 128
Education expenditures 2.70 (% of GDP) 152
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 35.6 (%) 16


Value name Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 27,110,000,000 116
GDP - real growth rate 6.50 (%) 36
GDP - per capita (PPP) 6,000 150
Labor force 1,959,000 122
Unemployment rate 15.10 (%) 147
Distribution of family income - Gini index 46 35
Investment (gross fixed) 34.30 (% of GDP) 13
Taxes and other revenues 25.7 (% of GDP) 116
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) -4.40 (% of GDP) 146
Public debt 36.30 (% of GDP) 99
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -0.90 (%) 2
Central bank discount rate 6.50 (%) 54
Commercial bank prime lending rate 25.87 (%) 11
Stock of narrow money 1,636,000,000 134
Stock of broad money 4,720,000,000 130
Stock of domestic credit 5,350,000,000 116
Market value of publicly traded shares 1,060,000,000 108
Industrial production growth rate 11.80 (%) 6
Current account balance -1,669,000,000 132
Exports 3,324,000,000 128
Imports 6,623,000,000 114
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 2,873,000,000 109
Debt - external 13,360,000,000 90
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 9,133,000,000 82
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 741,600,000 77


Value name Value World Rank
Electricity - production 9,694,000,000 (kWh) 94
Electricity - consumption 9,379,000,000 (kWh) 92
Electricity - exports 528,000,000 (kWh) 59
Electricity - imports 614,000,000 (kWh) 72
Electricity - installed generating capacity 4538000 (kW) 75
Electricity - from fossil fuels 37.2 (% of total installed capacity) 173
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 62.8 (% of total installed capacity) 28
Crude oil - production 980 (bbl/day) 99
Crude oil - exports 531 (bbl/day) 67
Crude oil - proved reserves 33190000 (bbl) 83
Refined petroleum products - production 858 (bbl/day) 115
Refined petroleum products - consumption 17,280 (bbl/day) 139
Refined petroleum products - imports 18,500 (bbl/day) 108
Natural gas - production 9,151,000 (cu m) 91
Natural gas - consumption 1,970,000,000 (cu m) 80
Natural gas - imports 1,960,000,000 (cu m) 50
Natural gas - proved reserves 93,410,000,000 (cu m) 57
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 5,302,000 (Mt) 122


Value name Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 1,345,000 67
Telephones - mobile cellular 4,430,000 113
Internet hosts 357,864 59
Internet users 1,300,000 90


Value name Value World Rank
Airports 22 134
Railways 1,612 (km) 78
Roadways 20,329 (km) 106
Merchant marine 142 40


Value name Value World Rank
Military expenditures 1.90 (% of GDP) 75

Data based on CIA facts book 2010 & 2013, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases

List of current world heritage sites

Name Since
Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery
The construction of Bagrati Cathedral, named after Bagrat III, the first king of united Georgia, started at the end of the 10th century and was completed in the early years of the 11th century. Although partly destroyed by the Turks in 1691, its ruin ...
Historical Monuments of Mtskheta
The historic churches of Mtskheta, former capital of Georgia, are outstanding examples of medieval religious architecture in the Caucasus. They show the high artistic and cultural level attained by this ancient kingdom. ...
Upper Svaneti
Preserved by its long isolation, the Upper Svaneti region of the Caucasus is an exceptional example of mountain scenery with medieval-type villages and tower-houses. The village of Chazhashi still has more than 200 of these very unusual houses, which ...