Mongolia Flag Icon

Mongolia Country Guide

Explore Mongolia in Asia

Mongolia with the capital city Ulan Bator is located in Asia (Northern Asia, between China and Russia). It covers some 1,565,001 square kilometres (slightly smaller than Alaska) with 2,996,000 citizens.

Interactive map of Mongolia

The landscape offers vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest and Gobi Desert in south-central. The average density of population is approximately 2 per km². The notable climate conditions in Mongolia can be described as desert with continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges). Potential threats by nature are dust storms or grassland and forest fires, drought, ", zud," or which being harsh winter conditions.

To reach someone in Mongolia dial +976 prior to a number. There are 188,900 installed telephones. And there are 2,249,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks commonly support frequencies of 900 Mhz. Websites registered in this country end with the top level domain ".mn". If you want to bring electric equipment on your trip (e.g. laptop power supply), note the local power outlet of 220V - 50Hz.

About the flag and history of Mongolia

Three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity.

The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols'' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People''s Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012. In 2009, current President ELBEGDORJ of the Democratic Party was elected to office. In 2010, the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People''s Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s. Shortly thereafter, a new party was formed by former president ENKHBAYAR, which adopted the MPRP name. In the 2012 Parliamentary elections, a coalition of four political parties led by the Democratic Party, gained control of the Parliament.

Geography Quick-Facts

Summary Continent: Asia
Neighbours: China, Russia
Capital: Ulan Bator
Size 1,565,000 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 604,250 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than Alaska
Population 2,996,000
Currency Name: Tugrik, Currency Code: MNT
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .mn
Telephone Country Prefix +976
Mobile Phone Connections 2,249,000
Landline Phone Connections 188,900

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Value name Value World Rank
Area 1,564,116 (sq km) 19

People and Society

Value name Value World Rank
Population 3,226,516 135
Population growth rate 1.44 (%) 84
Birth rate 20.34 (births/1,000 population) 84
Death rate 5.98 (deaths/1,000 population) 162
Maternal mortality rate 63.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 98
Infant mortality rate 34.78 (deaths/1,000 live births) 65
Life expectancy at birth 68.95 (years) 157
Total fertility rate 2.18 (children born/woman) 105
Health expenditures 5.40 (% of GDP) 124
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.10 (%) 144
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 500 155
HIV/AIDS - deaths 100 141
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 14.40 (%) 122
Children under the age of 5 years underweight 5.30 (%) 86
Education expenditures 5.50 (% of GDP) 55
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 20.0 (%) 57


Value name Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 15,440,000,000 141
GDP - real growth rate 12.30 (%) 3
GDP - per capita (PPP) 5,500 154
Labor force 1,037,000 142
Unemployment rate 9.00 (%) 102
Distribution of family income - Gini index 37 82
Taxes and other revenues 43.0 (% of GDP) 34
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) -8.30 (% of GDP) 199
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 14.00 (%) 210
Central bank discount rate 12.25 (%) 15
Commercial bank prime lending rate 15.50 (%) 38
Stock of narrow money 1,314,000,000 139
Stock of broad money 5,456,000,000 127
Stock of domestic credit 5,007,000,000 117
Market value of publicly traded shares 1,579,000,000 100
Industrial production growth rate 7.20 (%) 36
Current account balance -2,354,000,000 143
Exports 4,385,000,000 120
Imports 6,739,000,000 112
Debt - external 2,564,000,000 139
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 4,620,000,000 86
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 95,000,000 83


Value name Value World Rank
Electricity - production 4,480,000,000 (kWh) 122
Electricity - consumption 4,217,000,000 (kWh) 121
Electricity - imports 262,900,000 (kWh) 84
Electricity - installed generating capacity 833200 (kW) 128
Electricity - from fossil fuels 99.9 (% of total installed capacity) 47
Electricity - from other renewable sources 0.1 (% of total installed capacity) 93
Crude oil - production 6,983 (bbl/day) 85
Crude oil - exports 5,260 (bbl/day) 62
Refined petroleum products - consumption 21,610 (bbl/day) 127
Refined petroleum products - imports 15,730 (bbl/day) 116
Natural gas - imports 11,790 (cu m) 77
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 9,436,000 (Mt) 101


Value name Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 187,600 128
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,942,000 129
Internet hosts 20,084 118
Internet users 330,000 125


Value name Value World Rank
Airports 44 98
Railways 1,908 (km) 73
Roadways 49,249 (km) 79
Waterways 580 (km) 82
Merchant marine 57 68


Value name Value World Rank
Military expenditures 0.80 (% of GDP) 150

Data based on CIA facts book 2010 & 2013, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases

List of current world heritage sites

Name Since
Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape
The 121,967-ha Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape encompasses an extensive area of pastureland on both banks of the Orkhon River and includes numerous archaeological remains dating back to the 6th century. The site also includes Kharkhorum, the 13th- a ...
Petroglyphic Complexes of the Mongolian Altai
The numerous rock carvings and funerary monuments found in these three sites illustrate the development of culture in Mongolia over a period of 12,000 years. The earliest images reflect a time (11,000 - 6,000 BC) when the area was partly forested and ...
Uvs Nuur Basin
The Uvs Nuur Basin (1,068,853 ha), is the northernmost of the enclosed basins of Central Asia. It takes its name from Uvs Nuur Lake, a large, shallow and very saline lake, important for migrating birds, waterfowl and seabirds. The site is made up of ...