Montenegro Flag Icon

Montenegro Country Guide

Explore Montenegro in Europe

Montenegro with the capital city Podgorica is located in Europe (Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia). It covers some 14,027 square kilometres (slightly smaller than Connecticut) with 678,000 citizens.

Interactive map of Montenegro

The terrain features highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus. The average density of population is approximately 48 per km². The notable climate conditions in Montenegro can be described as Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland. Potential natural disasters are destructive earthquakes.

To reach someone in Montenegro dial +381 prior to a number. There are 366,600 installed telephones. And there are 752,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks commonly support frequencies of 900, 1800 Mhz. Websites registered in this country end with the top level domain ".cs". If you want to bring electric equipment on your trip (e.g. laptop power supply), note the local power outlet of 220V - 50Hz.

About the flag and history of Montenegro

A red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is symbol of episcopal authority and harks back to the three and a half centuries that Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy.

The use of the name Crna Gora (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro, while a part of the Ottoman Empire, was able to maintain a level of autonomy. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.

Geography Quick-Facts

Summary Continent: Europe
Neighbours: Albania, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia
Capital: Podgorica
Size 14,026 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 5,415 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Population 678,000
Currency Name: Euro, Currency Code: EUR
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .cs
Telephone Country Prefix +381
Mobile Phone Connections 752,000
Landline Phone Connections 366,600

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Value name Value World Rank
Area 13,812 (sq km) 162

People and Society

Value name Value World Rank
Population 653,474 167
Population growth rate -0.56 (%) 225
Birth rate 10.75 (births/1,000 population) 179
Death rate 9.17 (deaths/1,000 population) 63
Maternal mortality rate 8.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 162
Health expenditures 9.10 (% of GDP) 40
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 22.50 (%) 79
Children under the age of 5 years underweight 2.20 (%) 114
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 37.0 (%) 14


Value name Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 7,461,000,000 158
GDP - per capita (PPP) 12,000 107
Labor force 251,300 167
Unemployment rate 19.10 (%) 158
Distribution of family income - Gini index 24 134
Investment (gross fixed) 8.30 (% of GDP) 151
Taxes and other revenues 39.3 (% of GDP) 46
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 2.30 (% of GDP) 21
Public debt 52.10 (% of GDP) 59
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.00 (%) 113
Commercial bank prime lending rate 9.53 (%) 93
Stock of narrow money 749,000,000 155
Stock of broad money 1,982,000,000 150
Stock of domestic credit 3,290,000,000 129
Market value of publicly traded shares 3,604,000,000 90
Current account balance -1,938,000,000 134
Exports 489,200,000 173
Imports 2,400,000,000 159
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 400,000,000 150
Debt - external 1,700,000,000 145


Value name Value World Rank
Electricity - production 2,621,000,000 (kWh) 130
Electricity - consumption 4,100,000,000 (kWh) 123
Electricity - imports 1,500,000,000 (kWh) 55
Electricity - installed generating capacity 868000 (kW) 127
Electricity - from fossil fuels 24.2 (% of total installed capacity) 187
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 75.8 (% of total installed capacity) 18
Refined petroleum products - consumption 4,446 (bbl/day) 174
Refined petroleum products - imports 3,666 (bbl/day) 164
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 1,941,000 (Mt) 151


Value name Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 169,500 130
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,170,000 153
Internet hosts 10,088 135
Internet users 280,000 133


Value name Value World Rank
Airports 5 182
Railways 250 (km) 124
Roadways 7,624 (km) 145
Merchant marine 2 146

Data based on CIA facts book 2010 & 2013, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases

List of current world heritage sites

Name Since
Durmitor National Park
This breathtaking national park was formed by glaciers and is traversed by rivers and underground streams. Along the Tara river canyon, which has the deepest gorges in Europe, the dense pine forests are interspersed with clear lakes and harbour a wid ...
Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor
In the Middle Ages, this natural harbour on the Adriatic coast in Montenegro was an important artistic and commercial centre with its own famous schools of masonry and iconography. A large number of the monuments (including four Romanesque churches a ...