Romania Flag Icon

Romania Country Guide

Explore Romania in Europe

Romania with the capital city Bucharest is located in Europe (Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea). It covers some 237,501 square kilometres (slightly smaller than Oregon) with 22,246,000 citizens.

Map of the area of  in

The landscape offers central Transylvanian Basin being separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps. The average density of population is approximately 94 per km². The notable climate conditions in Romania can be described as temperate with cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog, sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. Potential threats by nature are earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest or geologic structure and climate promote landslides.

To reach someone in Romania dial +40 prior to a number. There are 5,313,000 installed telephones. And there are 25,377,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks commonly support frequencies of 900, 1800 Mhz. Websites registered in this country end with the top level domain ".ro". If you want to bring electric equipment on your trip (e.g. laptop power supply), note the local power outlet of 230V - 50Hz.

About the flag and history of Romania

Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova.

The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography Quick-Facts

Summary Continent: Europe
Neighbours: Moldova, Hungary, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Serbia
Capital: Bucharest
Size 237,500 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 91,699 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than Oregon
Population 22,246,000
Currency Name: Leu, Currency Code: RON
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .ro
Telephone Country Prefix +40
Mobile Phone Connections 25,377,000
Landline Phone Connections 5,313,000

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Value name Value World Rank
Area 238,391 (sq km) 83

People and Society

Value name Value World Rank
Population 21,790,479 56
Population growth rate -0.27 (%) 215
Birth rate 9.40 (births/1,000 population) 202
Death rate 11.86 (deaths/1,000 population) 30
Net migration rate -0.25 (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 121
Maternal mortality rate 27.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 128
Infant mortality rate 10.44 (deaths/1,000 live births) 142
Life expectancy at birth 74.45 (years) 110
Total fertility rate 1.31 (children born/woman) 213
Health expenditures 5.60 (% of GDP) 118
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.10 (%) 156
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 16,000 83
HIV/AIDS - deaths 1,000 78
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 19.10 (%) 101
Children under the age of 5 years underweight 3.50 (%) 100
Education expenditures 4.30 (% of GDP) 101
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 23.7 (%) 40


Value name Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 277,900,000,000 48
GDP - real growth rate 0.30 (%) 174
GDP - per capita (PPP) 13,000 101
Labor force 9,156,000 52
Unemployment rate 6.50 (%) 69
Distribution of family income - Gini index 33 97
Investment (gross fixed) 26.40 (% of GDP) 41
Taxes and other revenues 32.9 (% of GDP) 78
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) -2.50 (% of GDP) 98
Public debt 37.20 (% of GDP) 97
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.00 (%) 139
Central bank discount rate 5.75 (%) 62
Commercial bank prime lending rate 12.12 (%) 68
Stock of narrow money 25,400,000,000 64
Stock of broad money 63,440,000,000 65
Stock of domestic credit 88,530,000,000 56
Market value of publicly traded shares 21,200,000,000 62
Industrial production growth rate 0.10 (%) 144
Current account balance -7,488,000,000 171
Exports 67,720,000,000 52
Imports 78,310,000,000 39
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 46,790,000,000 41
Debt - external 132,100,000,000 42
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 74,490,000,000 47
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 1,506,000,000 72


Value name Value World Rank
Electricity - production 60,390,000,000 (kWh) 44
Electricity - consumption 53,740,000,000 (kWh) 45
Electricity - exports 2,940,000,000 (kWh) 38
Electricity - imports 1,040,000,000 (kWh) 64
Electricity - installed generating capacity 24980000 (kW) 33
Electricity - from fossil fuels 61.7 (% of total installed capacity) 135
Electricity - from nuclear fuels 9.4 (% of total installed capacity) 22
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 27.0 (% of total installed capacity) 82
Electricity - from other renewable sources 1.9 (% of total installed capacity) 60
Crude oil - production 92,140 (bbl/day) 51
Crude oil - imports 169,000 (bbl/day) 38
Crude oil - proved reserves 600000000 (bbl) 47
Refined petroleum products - production 298,200 (bbl/day) 47
Refined petroleum products - consumption 218,200 (bbl/day) 55
Refined petroleum products - exports 107,300 (bbl/day) 41
Refined petroleum products - imports 34,250 (bbl/day) 83
Natural gas - production 11,080,000,000 (cu m) 44
Natural gas - consumption 14,200,000,000 (cu m) 41
Natural gas - imports 3,120,000,000 (cu m) 41
Natural gas - proved reserves 63,000,000,000 (cu m) 64
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 78,430,000 (Mt) 45


Value name Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 4,680,000 31
Telephones - mobile cellular 23,400,000 44
Internet hosts 2,667,000 35
Internet users 7,787,000 37


Value name Value World Rank
Airports 53 88
Railways 10,785 (km) 21
Roadways 82,386 (km) 55
Waterways 1,731 (km) 46
Merchant marine 5 127


Value name Value World Rank
Military expenditures 1.90 (% of GDP) 73

Data based on CIA facts book 2010 & 2013, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases

List of current world heritage sites

Name Since
Churches of Moldavia
These eight churches of northern Moldavia, built from the late 15th century to the late 16th century, their external walls covered in fresco paintings, are masterpieces inspired by Byzantine art. They are authentic and particularly well preserved. Fa ...
Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains
Built in the 1st centuries B.C. and A.D. under Dacian rule, these fortresses show an unusual fusion of military and religious architectural techniques and concepts from the classical world and the late European Iron Age. The six defensive works, the ...
Danube Delta
The waters of the Danube, which flow into the Black Sea, form the largest and best preserved of Europe's deltas. The Danube delta hosts over 300 species of birds as well as 45 freshwater fish species in its numerous lakes and marshes. ...
Historic Centre of Sighişoara
Founded by German craftsmen and merchants known as the Saxons of Transylvania, Sighişoara is a fine example of a small, fortified medieval town which played an important strategic and commercial role on the fringes of central Europe for several cent ...
Monastery of Horezu
Founded in 1690 by Prince Constantine Brancovan, the monastery of Horezu, in Walachia, is a masterpiece of the 'Brancovan' style. It is known for its architectural purity and balance, the richness of its sculptural detail, the treatment of its religi ...
Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania
These Transylvanian villages with their fortified churches provide a vivid picture of the cultural landscape of southern Transylvania. The seven villages inscribed, founded by the Transylvanian Saxons, are characterized by a specific land-use system, ...
Wooden Churches of Maramureş
These eight churches are outstanding examples of a range of architectural solutions from different periods and areas. They show the variety of designs and craftsmanship adopted in these narrow, high, timber constructions with their characteristic tal ...