You are here:
- Homepage » France
France Country Guide
Explore France in Europe
The topography includes <i>metropolitan France: </i>mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west with remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east<br /><i>French Guiana: </i>low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains<br /><i>Guadeloupe: </i>Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains, Grande-Terre is low limestone formation, most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin<br /><i>Martinique: </i>mountainous with indented coastline, dormant volcano<br /><i>Mayotte: </i>generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks<br /><i>Reunion: </i>mostly rugged and mountainous and fertile lowlands along coast. The average density of population is approximately 117 per km². The notable climate conditions in France can be described as <i>metropolitan France: </i>generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean with occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral<br /><i>French Guiana: </i>tropical, hot, humid, little seasonal temperature variation<br /><i>Guadeloupe and Martinique: </i>subtropical tempered by trade winds, moderately high humidity, rainy season (June to October), vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average<br /><i>Mayotte: </i>tropical, marine, hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May), dry season is cooler (May to November)<br /><i>Reunion: </i>tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation and cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April). Possible natural disasters include <i>metropolitan France: </i>flooding or avalanches, midwinter windstorms, drought, forest fires in south near the Mediterranean<br /><i>overseas departments: </i>hurricanes (cyclones), flooding or volcanic activity (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion).
To reach someone in France dial +33 prior to a number. There are 36,441,000 installed telephones. And there are 60,950,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks commonly support frequencies of 900/1800/3G MHz. Websites registered in this country end with the top level domain ".fr". If you want to bring electric equipment on your trip (e.g. laptop power supply), note the local power outlet of 230V - 50Hz.
About the flag and history of France
Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the "Le drapeau tricolore" (French Tricolor), the origin of the flag dates to 1790 and the French Revolution when the "ancient French color" of white was combined with the blue and red colors of the Parisian militia; the official flag for all French dependent areas note: the design and/or colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, and Netherlands.
France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-8, the G-20, the EU and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO's integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing de Gaulle''s 1966 decision to take French forces out of NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent decades, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common currency, the euro, in January 1999. In the early 21st century, five French overseas entities - French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion - became French regions and were made part of France proper.
National administrative regions of France
Neighbours: Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, Andorra, Monaco, Spain
|Size||547,030 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 211,209 square miles (mi² or sqmi)|
slightly less than the size of Texas
|Currency||Name Euro, Currency Code:EUR|
|Country Top Level Domain (cTLD)||.fr|
|Telephone Country Prefix||+33|
|Mobile Phone Connections||60,950,000|
|Landline Phone Connections||36,441,000|
Country Position in World Rankings
Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).
|Value name||Value||World Rank|
|Area||643,801 (sq km)||43|
People and Society
|Value name||Value||World Rank|
|Population growth rate||0.47 (%)||152|
|Birth rate||12.60 (births/1,000 population)||157|
|Death rate||8.96 (deaths/1,000 population)||68|
|Net migration rate||1.10 (migrant(s)/1,000 population)||54|
|Maternal mortality rate||8.00 (deaths/100,000 live births)||157|
|Infant mortality rate||3.34 (deaths/1,000 live births)||215|
|Life expectancy at birth||81.56 (years)||15|
|Total fertility rate||2.08 (children born/woman)||117|
|Health expenditures||11.90 (% of GDP)||8|
|HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate||0.40 (%)||74|
|HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS||150,000||33|
|HIV/AIDS - deaths||1,700||56|
|Obesity - adult prevalence rate||18.20 (%)||108|
|Education expenditures||5.90 (% of GDP)||40|
|Unemployment, youth ages 15-24||22.10 (%)||50|
|Value name||Value||World Rank|
|GDP (purchasing power parity)||2,291,000,000,000||10|
|GDP - per capita (PPP)||36,100||40|
|Unemployment rate||10.30 (%)||112|
|Distribution of family income - Gini index||32.70||101|
|Investment (gross fixed)||19.90 (% of GDP)||99|
|Taxes and other revenues||51.40 (% of GDP)||15|
|Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)||-4.50 (% of GDP)||149|
|Public debt||89.90 (% of GDP)||17|
|Inflation rate (consumer prices)||1.30 (%)||20|
|Central bank discount rate||1.75 (%)||116|
|Commercial bank prime lending rate||3.43 (%)||173|
|Stock of narrow money||928,500,000,000||7|
|Stock of broad money||2,571,000,000,000||7|
|Stock of domestic credit||3,484,000,000,000||7|
|Market value of publicly traded shares||1,926,000,000,000||8|
|Industrial production growth rate||2.40 (%)||107|
|Current account balance||-58,700,000,000||188|
|Reserves of foreign exchange and gold||171,900,000,000||17|
|Debt - external||5,165,000,000,000||5|
|Stock of direct foreign investment - at home||1,110,000,000,000||6|
|Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad||1,702,000,000,000||3|
|Value name||Value||World Rank|
|Electricity - production||539,000,000,000 (kWh)||10|
|Electricity - consumption||451,400,000,000 (kWh)||11|
|Electricity - exports||66,600,000,000 (kWh)||3|
|Electricity - imports||37,100,000,000 (kWh)||6|
|Electricity - installed generating capacity||119,100,000 (kW)||10|
|Electricity - from fossil fuels||20.50 (% of total installed capacity)||190|
|Electricity - from nuclear fuels||53.00 (% of total installed capacity)||1|
|Electricity - from hydroelectric plants||17.60 (% of total installed capacity)||99|
|Electricity - from other renewable sources||5.30 (% of total installed capacity)||35|
|Crude oil - production||49,530 (bbl/day)||60|
|Crude oil - imports||1,428,000 (bbl/day)||9|
|Crude oil - proved reserves||90,010,000 (bbl)||74|
|Refined petroleum products - production||1,694,000 (bbl/day)||15|
|Refined petroleum products - consumption||1,792,000 (bbl/day)||14|
|Refined petroleum products - exports||487,200 (bbl/day)||15|
|Refined petroleum products - imports||778,400 (bbl/day)||8|
|Natural gas - production||587,000,000 (cu m)||70|
|Natural gas - consumption||41,520,000,000 (cu m)||25|
|Natural gas - exports||5,378,000,000 (cu m)||30|
|Natural gas - imports||47,040,000,000 (cu m)||8|
|Natural gas - proved reserves||5,522,000,000 (cu m)||92|
|Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy||395,200,000 (Mt)||19|
|Value name||Value||World Rank|
|Telephones - main lines in use||39,883,000||7|
|Telephones - mobile cellular||59,840,000||21|
|Value name||Value||World Rank|
|Value name||Value||World Rank|
|Military expenditures||2.60 (% of GDP)||51|
Data based on CIA facts book 2010 & 2013, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases
List of current world heritage sites
|Abbey Church of Saint-Savin sur Gartempe|
Known as the 'Romanesque Sistine Chapel', the Abbey-Church of Saint-Savin contains many beautiful 11th- and 12th-century murals which are still in a remarkable state of preservation. ...
Amiens Cathedral, in the heart of Picardy, is one of the largest 'classic' Gothic churches of the 13th century. It is notable for the coherence of its plan, the beauty of its three-tier interior elevation and the particularly fine display of sculptur ...
|Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments|
Arles is a good example of the adaptation of an ancient city to medieval European civilization. It has some impressive Roman monuments, of which the earliest – the arena, the Roman theatre and the cryptoporticus (subterranean galleries) – date back t ...
|Bordeaux, Port of the Moon|
The Port of the Moon, port city of Bordeaux in south-west France, is inscribed as an inhabited historic city, an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble, created in the age of the Enlightenment, whose values continued up to the first half of the ...
The Cathedral of St Etienne of Bourges, built between the late 12th and late 13th centuries, is one of the great masterpieces of Gothic art and is admired for its proportions and the unity of its design. The tympanum, sculptures and stained-glass win ...
|Canal du Midi|
This 360-km network of navigable waterways linking the Mediterranean and the Atlantic through 328 structures (locks, aqueducts, bridges, tunnels, etc.) is one of the most remarkable feats of civil engineering in modern times. Built between 1667 and 1 ...
|Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Former Abbey of Saint-Rémi and Palace of Tau, Reims|
The outstanding handling of new architectural techniques in the 13th century, and the harmonious marriage of sculptural decoration with architecture, has made Notre-Dame in Reims one of the masterpieces of Gothic art. The former abbey still has its b ...
Partly built starting in 1145, and then reconstructed over a 26-year period after the fire of 1194, Chartres Cathedral marks the high point of French Gothic art. The vast nave, in pure ogival style, the porches adorned with fine sculptures from the m ...
|Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay|
This stark Burgundian monastery was founded by St Bernard in 1119. With its church, cloister, refectory, sleeping quarters, bakery and ironworks, it is an excellent illustration of the ideal of self-sufficiency as practised by the earliest communitie ...
|Decorated Cave of Pont d’Arc, known as Grotte Chauvet-Pont d’Arc, Ardèche|
Located in a limestone plateau of the Ardèche River in southern France, the property contains the earliest-known and best-preserved figurative drawings in the world, dating back as early as the Aurignacian period (30,000–32,000 BP), making it an exce ...
|Episcopal City of Albi|
On the banks of the Tarn river in south-west France, the old city of Albi reflects the culmination of a medieval architectural and urban ensemble. Today the Old Bridge (Pont-Vieux), the Saint-Salvi quarter and its church are testimony to its initial ...
|Fortifications of Vauban|
Fortifications of Vauban consists of 12 groups of fortified buildings and sites along the western, northern and eastern borders of France. They represent the finest examples of the work of Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban (1633-1707), a military engine ...
|From the Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains to the Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans, the Production of Open-pan Salt|
The Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans, near Besançon, was built by Claude Nicolas Ledoux. Its construction, begun in 1775 during the reign of Louis XVI, was the first major achievement of industrial architecture, reflecting the ideal of progress of th ...
|Gulf of Porto: Calanche of Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve|
The nature reserve, which is part of the Regional Natural Park of Corsica, occupies the Scandola peninsula, an impressive, porphyritic rock mass. The vegetation is an outstanding example of scrubland. Seagulls, cormorants and sea eagles can be found ...
|Historic Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble and Avignon Bridge|
In the 14th century, this city in the South of France was the seat of the papacy. The Palais des Papes, an austere-looking fortress lavishly decorated by Simone Martini and Matteo Giovanetti, dominates the city, the surrounding ramparts and the remai ...
|Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne|
Since the pre-Roman period, a fortified settlement has existed on the hill where Carcassonne now stands. In its present form it is an outstanding example of a medieval fortified town, with its massive defences encircling the castle and the surroundin ...
|Historic Site of Lyons|
The long history of Lyons, which was founded by the Romans in the 1st century B.C. as the capital of the Three Gauls and has continued to play a major role in Europe's political, cultural and economic development ever since, is vividly illustrated by ...
|Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion|
Viticulture was introduced to this fertile region of Aquitaine by the Romans, and intensified in the Middle Ages. The Saint-Emilion area benefited from its location on the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela and many churches, monasteries and ...
|Lagoons of New Caledonia: Reef Diversity and Associated Ecosystems|
This serial site comprises six marine clusters that represent the main diversity of coral reefs and associated ecosystems in the French Pacific Ocean archipelago of New Caledonia and one of the three most extensive reef systems in the world. These La ...
|Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret|
The city of Le Havre, on the English Channel in Normandy, was severely bombed during the Second World War. The destroyed area was rebuilt according to the plan of a team headed by Auguste Perret, from 1945 to 1964. The site forms the administrative, ...
|Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay|
Perched on a rocky islet in the midst of vast sandbanks exposed to powerful tides between Normandy and Brittany stand the 'Wonder of the West', a Gothic-style Benedictine abbey dedicated to the archangel St Michael, and the village that grew up in th ...
|Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin|
Remarkable as a landscape shaped over three centuries of coal extraction from the 1700s to the 1900s, the site consists of 109 separate components over 120,000 ha. It features mining pits (the oldest of which dates from 1850) and lift infrastructure, ...
|Palace and Park of Fontainebleau|
Used by the kings of France from the 12th century, the medieval royal hunting lodge of Fontainebleau, standing at the heart of a vast forest in the Ile-de-France, was transformed, enlarged and embellished in the 16th century by François I, who wanted ...
|Palace and Park of Versailles|
The Palace of Versailles was the principal residence of the French kings from the time of Louis XIV to Louis XVI. Embellished by several generations of architects, sculptors, decorators and landscape architects, it provided Europe with a model of the ...
|Paris, Banks of the Seine|
From the Louvre to the Eiffel Tower, from the Place de la Concorde to the Grand and Petit Palais, the evolution of Paris and its history can be seen from the River Seine. The Cathedral of Notre-Dame and the Sainte Chapelle are architectural masterpie ...
|Pitons, cirques and remparts of Reunion Island|
The Pitons, cirques and remparts of Reunion Island site coincides with the core zone of La Réunion National Park. The property covers more than 100,000 ha or 40 % of La Réunion, an island comprising two adjoining volcanic massifs located in the south ...
|Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance in Nancy|
Nancy, the temporary residence of a king without a kingdom – Stanislas Leszczynski, later to become Duke of Lorraine – is paradoxically the oldest and most typical example of a modern capital where an enlightened monarch proved to be sensitive to the ...
|Pont du Gard (Roman Aqueduct)|
|Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley|
The Vézère valley contains 147 prehistoric sites dating from the Palaeolithic and 25 decorated caves. It is particularly interesting from an ethnological and anthropological, as well as an aesthetic point of view because of its cave paintings, especi ...
|Provins, Town of Medieval Fairs|
The fortified medieval town of Provins is situated in the former territory of the powerful Counts of Champagne. It bears witness to early developments in the organization of international trading fairs and the wool industry. The urban structure of Pr ...
|Pyrénées - Mont Perdu|
This outstanding mountain landscape, which spans the contemporary national borders of France and Spain, is centred around the peak of Mount Perdu, a calcareous massif that rises to 3,352 m. The site, with a total area of 30,639 ha, includes two of Eu ...
|Roman Theatre and its Surroundings and the "Triumphal Arch" of Orange|
Situated in the Rhone valley, the ancient theatre of Orange, with its 103-m-long facade, is one of the best preserved of all the great Roman theatres. Built between A.D. 10 and 25, the Roman arch is one of the most beautiful and interesting surviving ...
|Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France|
Santiago de Compostela was the supreme goal for countless thousands of pious pilgrims who converged there from all over Europe throughout the Middle Ages. To reach Spain pilgrims had to pass through France, and the group of important historical monum ...
|Strasbourg – Grande île|
Surrounded by two arms of the River Ill, the Grande Ile (Big Island) is the historic centre of the Alsatian capital. It has an outstanding complex of monuments within a fairly small area. The cathedral, the four ancient churches and the Palais Rohan ...
|The Causses and the Cévennes, Mediterranean agro-pastoral Cultural Landscape|
This 302,319 ha property, in the southern part of central France, is a mountain landscape interspersed by deep valleys that is representative of the relationship between agro-pastoral systems and their biophysical environment, notably through draille ...
|The Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes|
The Loire Valley is an outstanding cultural landscape of great beauty, containing historic towns and villages, great architectural monuments (the châteaux), and cultivated lands formed by many centuries of interaction between their population and the ...
|Vézelay, Church and Hill|
Shortly after its foundation in the 9th century, the Benedictine abbey of Vézelay acquired the relics of St Mary Magdalene and since then it has been an important place of pilgrimage. St Bernard preached the Second Crusade there in 1146 and Richard t ...