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Estonia Country Guide

Explore Estonia in Europe

Estonia with the capital city Tallinn is located in Europe (Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland). It covers some 45,226 square kilometres (slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined) with 1,307,000 citizens.

Interactive map of Estonia

The topography includes marshy, lowlands with flat in the north, hilly in the south. The average density of population is approximately 29 per km². The notable climate conditions in Estonia can be described as maritime with wet, moderate winters, cool summers. Possible natural disasters include sometimes flooding occurs in the spring.

To reach someone in Estonia dial +372 prior to a number. There are 492,800 installed telephones. And there are 2,720,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks commonly support frequencies of 900/1800/3G MHz. Websites registered in this country end with the top level domain ".ee". If you want to bring electric equipment on your trip (e.g. laptop power supply), note the local power outlet of 230V - 50Hz.

About the flag and history of Estonia

Estonia Flag Icon

Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white; various interpretations are linked to the flag colors; blue represents faith, loyalty, and devotion, while also reminiscent of the sky, sea, and lakes of the country; black symbolizes the soil of the country and the dark past and suffering endured by the Estonian people; white refers to the striving towards enlightenment and virtue, and is the color of birch bark and snow, as well as summer nights illuminated by the midnight sun.

After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US - it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with the West. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004, formally joined the OECD in late 2010, and adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2011.

Geography Quick-Facts

SummaryContinent: Europe
Neighbours: Russia, Latvia
Capital: Tallinn
Size45,226 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 17,461 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
CurrencyName Kroon, Currency Code:EEK
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD).ee
Telephone Country Prefix+372
Mobile Phone Connections2,720,000
Landline Phone Connections492,800

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Value nameValueWorld Rank
Area45,228 (sq km)133

People and Society

Value nameValueWorld Rank
Population1,266,375 157
Population growth rate-0.66 (%)228
Birth rate10.38 (births/1,000 population)184
Death rate13.65 (deaths/1,000 population)14
Net migration rate-3.35 (migrant(s)/1,000 population)182
Maternal mortality rate2.00 (deaths/100,000 live births)183
Infant mortality rate6.82 (deaths/1,000 live births)164
Life expectancy at birth73.82 (years)118
Total fertility rate1.45 (children born/woman)198
Health expenditures6.00 (% of GDP)107
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.20 (%)41
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS9,900 97
HIV/AIDS - deaths500 93
Obesity - adult prevalence rate20.60 (%)95
Education expenditures6.10 (% of GDP)37
Unemployment, youth ages 15-2422.40 (%)46


Value nameValueWorld Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity)29,570,000,000 113
GDP - real growth rate3.20 (%)103
GDP - per capita (PPP)22,100 66
Labor force675,900 153
Unemployment rate11.50 (%)123
Distribution of family income - Gini index31.30 108
Investment (gross fixed)23.30 (% of GDP)63
Taxes and other revenues36.20 (% of GDP)60
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.40 (% of GDP)93
Public debt8.00 (% of GDP)144
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.30 (%)87
Commercial bank prime lending rate6.10 (%)139
Stock of narrow money7,033,000,000 90
Stock of broad money12,110,000,000 100
Stock of domestic credit19,770,000,000 85
Market value of publicly traded shares2,260,000,000 97
Industrial production growth rate18.00 (%)2
Current account balance498,000,000 47
Exports17,380,000,000 78
Imports17,870,000,000 81
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold217,000,000 159
Debt - external21,980,000,000 79
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home16,760,000,000 75
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad6,609,000,000 61


Value nameValueWorld Rank
Electricity - production12,890,000,000 (kWh)89
Electricity - consumption7,755,000,000 (kWh)96
Electricity - exports4,354,000,000 (kWh)31
Electricity - imports1,100,000,000 (kWh)63
Electricity - installed generating capacity2,661,000 (kW)92
Electricity - from fossil fuels94.60 (% of total installed capacity)69
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0.30 (% of total installed capacity)146
Electricity - from other renewable sources5.10 (% of total installed capacity)36
Crude oil - production7,700 (bbl/day)84
Refined petroleum products - consumption26,340 (bbl/day)122
Refined petroleum products - imports23,270 (bbl/day)101
Natural gas - consumption701,000,000 (cu m)97
Natural gas - imports701,000,000 (cu m)65
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy20,560,000 (Mt)82


Value nameValueWorld Rank
Telephones - main lines in use471,900 101
Telephones - mobile cellular1,863,000 142
Internet hosts865,494 49
Internet users971,700 102


Value nameValueWorld Rank
Airports18 140
Railways1,200 (km)85
Roadways58,034 (km)75
Waterways335 (km)91
Merchant marine25 89


Value nameValueWorld Rank
Military expenditures2.00 (% of GDP)66

Data based on CIA facts book 2010 & 2013, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases

List of current world heritage sites

Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn
The origins of Tallinn date back to the 13th century, when a castle was built there by the crusading knights of the Teutonic Order. It developed as a major centre of the Hanseatic League, and its wealth is demonstrated by the opulence of the public b ...