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Finland Country Guide

Explore Finland in Europe

Finland with the capital city Helsinki is located in Europe (Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea). It covers some 337,030 square kilometres (slightly smaller than Montana) with 5,244,000 citizens.

Interactive map of Finland

The terrain features mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills. The average density of population is approximately 16 per km². The notable climate conditions in Finland can be described as cold temperate with potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes. Potential natural disasters are NA.

To reach someone in Finland dial +358 prior to a number. There are 1,430,000 installed telephones. And there are 7,700,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks commonly support frequencies of 900/1800/3G MHz. Websites registered in this country end with the top level domain ".fi". If you want to bring electric equipment on your trip (e.g. laptop power supply), note the local power outlet of 230V - 50Hz.

About the flag and history of Finland

Finland Flag Icon

White with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter.

Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are a high standard of education, equality promotion, and national social security system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

Geography Quick-Facts

SummaryContinent: Europe
Neighbours: Norway, Russia, Sweden
Capital: Helsinki
Size337,030 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 130,128 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than Montana
CurrencyName Euro, Currency Code:EUR
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD).fi
Telephone Country Prefix+358
Mobile Phone Connections7,700,000
Landline Phone Connections1,430,000

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Value nameValueWorld Rank
Area338,145 (sq km)65

People and Society

Value nameValueWorld Rank
Population5,266,114 116
Population growth rate0.06 (%)186
Birth rate10.36 (births/1,000 population)185
Death rate10.42 (deaths/1,000 population)44
Net migration rate0.62 (migrant(s)/1,000 population)63
Maternal mortality rate5.00 (deaths/100,000 live births)177
Infant mortality rate3.38 (deaths/1,000 live births)213
Life expectancy at birth79.55 (years)41
Total fertility rate1.73 (children born/woman)166
Health expenditures9.00 (% of GDP)43
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.10 (%)127
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS2,600 131
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 131
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.00 (%)77
Education expenditures6.80 (% of GDP)24
Unemployment, youth ages 15-2418.90 (%)64


Value nameValueWorld Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity)200,700,000,000 56
GDP - real growth rate-0.20 (%)186
GDP - per capita (PPP)37,000 37
Labor force2,679,000 108
Unemployment rate7.30 (%)81
Distribution of family income - Gini index26.80 127
Investment (gross fixed)20.00 (% of GDP)95
Taxes and other revenues51.70 (% of GDP)14
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.80 (% of GDP)82
Public debt53.50 (% of GDP)53
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.00 (%)79
Central bank discount rate1.75 (%)117
Commercial bank prime lending rate2.68 (%)180
Stock of narrow money117,000,000,000 31
Stock of broad money183,400,000,000 44
Stock of domestic credit257,800,000,000 38
Market value of publicly traded shares118,200,000,000 40
Industrial production growth rate1.50 (%)124
Current account balance-3,600,000,000 155
Exports72,700,000,000 49
Imports72,230,000,000 42
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold9,900,000,000 74
Debt - external599,300,000,000 23
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home84,320,000,000 44
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad148,800,000,000 25


Value nameValueWorld Rank
Electricity - production76,160,000,000 (kWh)40
Electricity - consumption77,660,000,000 (kWh)37
Electricity - exports5,218,000,000 (kWh)29
Electricity - imports15,720,000,000 (kWh)11
Electricity - installed generating capacity16,320,000 (kW)44
Electricity - from fossil fuels52.50 (% of total installed capacity)153
Electricity - from nuclear fuels16.40 (% of total installed capacity)16
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants19.10 (% of total installed capacity)93
Electricity - from other renewable sources12.00 (% of total installed capacity)20
Crude oil - imports215,700 (bbl/day)32
Refined petroleum products - production301,500 (bbl/day)46
Refined petroleum products - consumption204,800 (bbl/day)57
Refined petroleum products - exports133,600 (bbl/day)40
Refined petroleum products - imports103,100 (bbl/day)48
Natural gas - consumption4,101,000,000 (cu m)66
Natural gas - imports4,101,000,000 (cu m)36
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy54,400,000 (Mt)59


Value nameValueWorld Rank
Telephones - main lines in use1,080,000 73
Telephones - mobile cellular8,940,000 82
Internet hosts4,763,000 22
Internet users4,393,000 55


Value nameValueWorld Rank
Airports148 38
Railways5,919 (km)31
Roadways78,141 (km)59
Waterways7,842 (km)18
Merchant marine97 51


Value nameValueWorld Rank
Military expenditures2.00 (% of GDP)68

Data based on CIA facts book 2010 & 2013, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases

List of current world heritage sites

Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki
This Bronze Age burial site features more than 30 granite burial cairns, providing a unique insight into the funerary practices and social and religious structures of northern Europe more than three millennia ago. ...
Fortress of Suomenlinna
Built in the second half of the 18th century by Sweden on a group of islands located at the entrance of Helsinki's harbour, this fortress is an especially interesting example of European military architecture of the time. ...
High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago
The Kvarken Archipelago (Finland) and the High Coast (Sweden) are situated in the Gulf of Bothnia, a northern extension of the Baltic Sea. The 5,600 islands of the Kvarken Archipelago feature unusual ridged washboard moraines, ‘De Geer moraines’, for ...
Old Rauma
Situated on the Gulf of Botnia, Rauma is one of the oldest harbours in Finland. Built around a Franciscan monastery, where the mid-15th-century Holy Cross Church still stands, it is an outstanding example of an old Nordic city constructed in wood. Al ...
Petäjävesi Old Church
Petäjävesi Old Church, in central Finland, was built of logs between 1763 and 1765. This Lutheran country church is a typical example of an architectural tradition that is unique to eastern Scandinavia. It combines the Renaissance conception of a cen ...
Verla Groundwood and Board Mill
The Verla groundwood and board mill and its associated residential area is an outstanding, remarkably well-preserved example of the small-scale rural industrial settlements associated with pulp, paper and board production that flourished in northern ...